, Among the early proponents of building a railroad line that would connect the coasts of the United States was Dr. Hartwell Carver, who in 1847 submitted to the U.S. Congress a "Proposal for a Charter to Build a Railroad from Lake Michigan to the Pacific Ocean", seeking a congressional charter to support his idea. The railroad was originally routed along the north shore, and later with the Lucin Cutoff directly across the center of the Great Salt Lake, passing through the city of Ogden instead of Salt Lake City. This in part motivated the United States to complete the Gadsden Purchase.. Both groups of financiers formed independent companies to complete the project, and they controlled management of the new companies along with the railroad ventures. The detailed survey work that made these tunnel digs as precise as required was nearly all done by the Canadian-born and -trained Lewis Clement, the CPRR's Chief Assistant Engineer and Superintendent of Track, and his assistants.. Former ophthalmologist Dr. Thomas Clark "Doc" Durant was nominally only a vice president of Union Pacific, so he installed a series of respected men like John Adams Dix as president of the railroad. Durant chose routes that would favor places where he held land, and he announced connections to other lines at times that suited his share dealings. Carver's 1847 proposal records himself as having written a newspaper article on the subject in 1837. The first talk of a transcontinental railroad started around 1830. "The charter of the last-named Company [Western Pacific Railroad] contemplated a line from Sacramento toward San Francisco, making the circuit of the Bay of that name [to San José]. The primary incentive had been getting the subsidies, which meant that upgrades of all kinds were routinely required in the following years. Congress finally took action, outlawing the killing of any birds or animals in Yellowstone National Park, where the only surviving buffalo herd could be protected. After completion, this became another major east–west railroad. In advance of the track layers, surveyors consulting with engineers determined where the track would go. Efforts to survey a new, shorter, "better" route had been underway since 1864. He paid an associate to submit the construction bid to another company he controlled, Crédit Mobilier, manipulating the finances and government subsidies and making himself another fortune. Coal had been discovered in Wyoming and reported on by John C. Frémont in his 1843 expedition across Wyoming, and was already being exploited by Utah residents from towns like Coalville, Utah and later Kemmerer, Wyoming by the time the Transcontinental railroad was built. (1891) pp.  Surveying, mapping, and construction started on the Baltimore and Ohio in 1830, and fourteen miles of track were opened before the year ended. One advantage of working on tunnels in winter was that tunnel work could often proceed since the work was nearly all "inside". The two companies took advantage of these weaknesses in the legislation to manipulate the project and produce extra profit for themselves. Also, the lack of federal oversight provided both companies with incentives to continue building their railroads past one other, since they were each being paid, and receiving land grants, based on how many miles of track they laid, even though only one track would eventually be used. The eastern and western approaches to the bridge site, near the highest elevation on the transcontinental railroad, required cutting through granite for nearly a mile on each side. After the southern states seceded from the Union, the House of Representatives approved the bill on May 6, 1862, and the Senate on June 20. , To allow the companies to raise additional capital, Congress granted the railroads a 200-foot (61 m) right-of-way corridor, lands for additional facilities like sidings and maintenance yards. It was through Judah's efforts and the support of Abraham Lincoln, who saw military benefits in the lines as well as the bonding of the Pacific Coast to the Union, that the Pacific Railroad finally became a reality. Mississippi. Survey teams were put out to produce detailed contour maps of the options on the different routes. The major investor in the Union Pacific was Thomas Clark Durant, who had made his stake money by smuggling Confederate cotton with the aid of Grenville M. Dodge. :49 J. O. Wilder, a Central Pacific-Southern Pacific employee, commented that "The Chinese were as steady, hard-working a set of men as could be found. By April 1864 the jubilance of groundbreaking had long ago faded into the ether. Clement taking the upper division from Blue Cañon to Truckee and Cadwalader taking the lower division from Truckee to the Nevada border. The railroad even dipped into what would become the new state of Colorado after crossing the North Platte River as it followed the South Platte River west into what would become Julesburg before turning northwest along Lodgepole Creek into Wyoming. In the 2002 DreamWorks Animation movie, Spirit: Stallion of the Cimarron, the main character, the horse Spirit, is delivered with other horses to pull a steam locomotive at a work site for the Transcontinental Railroad. Their franchise has recently [late 1867] been assigned to parties in the interest of the Central Pacific Railroad Company; and it is probable that this line will be formally incorporated with the Central Pacific Railroad, and the road extended from Sacramento to San Francisco by the. Tunnels 1–5 and Tunnel 13 of the original 1860s tunnels on Track 1 of the Sierra grade remain in use today, while additional new tunnels were later driven when the grade was double tracked over the first quarter of the twentieth century. Why did … By 1867, a new route was found and surveyed that went along part of the South Platte River in western Nebraska and after entering what is now the state of Wyoming, ascended a gradual sloping ridge between Lodgepole Creek and Crow Creek to the 8,200-foot (2,500 m) Evans pass (also called Sherman's Pass) which was discovered by the Union Pacific employed English surveyor and engineer, James Evans, in about 1864. When the last spike was driven, the rail network was not yet connected to the Atlantic or Pacific but merely connected Omaha to Sacramento. In 1869, the Kansas Pacific Railway started building the Hannibal Bridge, a swing bridge across the Missouri River between Kansas City, Missouri and Kansas City, Kansas which connected railroads on both sides of the Missouri while still allowing passage of paddle steamers on the river. Hunters were hired to provide buffalo meat from the large herds of American bison. Near where the Platte River splits into the North Platte River and South Platte River, the railroad bridged the North Platte River over a 2,600-foot-long (790 m) bridge (nicknamed ½ mile bridge). The railroad opened for through traffic between Sacramento and Omaha on May 10, 1869, when CPRR President Leland Stanford ceremonially tapped the gold "Last Spike" (later often referred to as the "Golden Spike") with a silver hammer at Promontory Summit. Chinese camp and construction train in Nevada when building of the first transcontinental railroad was being speeded across the state by the Central Pacific. The cross section of a tunnel face was a 16-foot-wide (4.9 m), 16-foot-high (4.9 m) oval with an 11-foot (3.4 m) vertical wall. The fishplates connecting the ends of the rails would be bolted on and then the car pushed by hand to the end of the rail and rail installation repeated. Many of Union Pacific engineers and surveyors were Union Army veterans (including two generals) who had learned their railroad trade keeping the trains running and tracks maintained during the U.S. Civil War. The original track had often been laid as fast as possible with only secondary attention to maintenance and durability. In 1869, the Comanche chief Tosawi was reported to have told Sheridan, “Me Tosawi. Vista points on Interstate 80 through California's Truckee Canyon provide a panoramic view of many miles of the original Central Pacific line and of the snow sheds which made winter train travel safe and practical. Tunnels were blasted through hard rock by drilling holes in the rock face by hand and filling them with black powder.  Initially, many valleys were bridged by "temporary" trestles that could be rapidly built and were later replaced by much lower maintenance and permanent solid fill. 127–130, "A Memorial and Biographical History of Northern California: Illustrated. Most of the early work on the Central Pacific consisted of constructing the railroad track bed, cutting and/or blasting through or around hills, filling in washes, building bridges or trestles, digging and blasting tunnels and then laying the rails over the Sierra Nevada (U.S.) mountains. On June 18, 1868, the Central Pacific reached Reno, Nevada, after completing 132 miles (212 km) of railroad up and over the Sierras from Sacramento, California. Durant's railroad was paid by the mile, and to further inflate its profits, the Union Pacific built oxbows of unneeded track, and by July 4, 1865, it had only reached 40 miles (64 km) from Omaha after 2½ years of construction. 4. It was at Promontory Summit on May 10, 1869, that Leland Stanford drove The Last Spike (or golden spike) that joined the rails of the transcontinental railroad. , The joining of the Union Pacific line with the Central Pacific line in May 1869 at Promontory Summit, Utah, was one of the major inspirations for French writer Jules Verne's book entitled Around the World in Eighty Days, published in 1873.. Kristiana Gregory's 1999 book The Great Railroad Race (part of the "Dear America" series) is written as the fictional diary of Libby West, who chronicles the end of the railroad construction and the excitement which engulfed the country at the time. Collis Huntington, a Sacramento hardware merchant, heard Judah's presentation about the railroad at the St. Charles Hotel in November 1860. Before major construction could begin, Judah traveled back to New York City to raise funds to buy out The Big Four. It was accompanied by an outline map of North America which shows the route of his railroad from Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin, across the Rocky Mountains north of South Pass. Tags: Question 13 . In 1930, a rail bridge across the Carquinez replaced the Benicia ferries. With the advent of more efficient oil fired steam and later diesel electric power to drive plows, flangers, spreaders, and rotary snow plows, most of the wooden snowsheds have long since been removed as obsolete. The legal "date of completion" of the WPRR grade was subsequently designated to be January 22, 1870. The two railroad companies sold similar amounts of company-backed bonds and stock. Several years after the end of the Civil War, the competing railroads coming from Missouri finally realized their initial strategic advantage and a building boom ensued. This was because we needed an efficient way to cross between the east coast and the west, without many faults. Houston, Texas.  Construction was financed by both state and US government subsidy bonds as well as by company issued mortgage bonds. Very early on, the Central Pacific learned that it would have trouble maintaining an open track in winter across the Sierras. The site offers visitors a brief history of the building of the transcontinental railroad as well as information on the history and technology of 19th century railroads. It was a link for trade, commerce and travel that joined the eastern and western halves of the 19th century. To get from Sacramento to the Pacific, the Central Pacific purchased the struggling Western Pacific Railroad (unrelated to the railroad of the same name that would later parallel its route) and in summer 1869 resumed construction on it, which had halted in 1866 due to funding troubles. Where a proper railbed had already been prepared, the work progressed rapidly. The original emigrant route across Wyoming of the Oregon, Mormon and California Trails, after progressing up the Platte River valley, went up the North Platte River valley through Casper, Wyoming, along the Sweetwater River and over the Continental Divide at the 7,412-foot (2,259 m) South Pass. , In total, the Central Pacific had eleven tunnel projects (Nos. The new terminus opened on November 8, later deemed to be two days after the official "completion date" of the Pacific Railroad. Many of the original telegraph lines were abandoned as the telegraph business was consolidated with the railroad telegraph lines.. Construction got a slow start in Omaha, Nebraska, eastern terminus of the Union Pacific Railroad. Supplies were ordered by the engineers and hauled by rail, possibly then to be loaded on wagons if they were needed ahead of the railhead. This process began with a ceremonial "undriving" at the Last Spike location.. The Western Pacific was originally chartered to go to San Jose, but the Central Pacific decided to build along the East Bay instead, as going from San Jose up the Peninsula to San Francisco itself would have brought it into conflict with competing interests. The Transcontinental Railroad stated from Sacremonto California and Western sides of the United States and met in Promontory Summit, Utah. 40 ft or 12 m) to Donner Summit (elev.  Costing about $300,000 and a years worth of work, this toll road wagon route was opened over much of the route the Central Pacific railroad (CPRR) would use over Donner Summit to carry freight and passengers needed by the CPRR and to carry other cargo over their toll road to and from the ever-advancing railhead and over the Sierra to the gold and silver mining towns of Nevada. ", " 'We took away their country and their means of support, broke up their mode of living, their habits of life, introduced disease and decay among them, and it was for this and against this they made war. These works had started production in 1864 after the U.S. Civil War had cut off shipments of black powder from the East to the mining and railroad industry of California and Nevada. The first spikes were driven in 1863, in the midst of the Civil War. Since juggling railroad cars took time on flat ground, where wagon transport was easier, the rail cars would be brought to the end of the line by steam locomotive, unloaded, and the flat car returned immediately to a siding for another loaded car of either ballast or rails. The railroad entered Alameda and Oakland from the south, roughly paralleling what would later become U.S. Route 50 and later still Interstates 5, 205, and 580. , "On the ground in the West, Gen. Philip Henry Sheridan, assuming Sherman’s command, took to his task much as he had done in the Shenandoah Valley during the Civil War, when he ordered the “scorched earth” tactics that presaged Sherman's March to the Sea. Connecting to this pass, about 15 miles (24 km) west of Cheyenne, was the one place across the Laramie Mountains that had a narrow "guitar neck" of land that crossed the mountains without serious erosion at the so-called "gangplank" (41°05′59″N 105°09′12″W / 41.099746°N 105.153205°W / 41.099746; -105.153205) discovered by Major General Grenville Dodge in 1865 when he was in the U.S. [verification needed] The total area of the land grants to the Union Pacific and Central Pacific was larger than the area of the state of Texas: federal government land grants totaled about 130,000,000 acres, and state government land grants totaled about 50,000,000 acres.  While building the railroad along the rugged Weber River Canyon, Mormon workers signed the Thousand Mile Tree which was lone tree alongside the track 1,000 miles (1,600 km) from Omaha. With the exception of a few whites at the west end of Tunnel No. Through solid granite, the summit tunnel progressed at a rate of only about 0.98 feet (0.30 m) per day per face as it was being worked by three eight-hour shifts of workers, hand drilling holes with a rock drill and hammer, filling them with black powder and trying to blast the granite loose. The southern routes were objectionable to northern politicians and the northern routes were objectionable to the southern politicians, but the surveys could not, of course, resolve these sectional issues. Under Durant's guidance, Crédit Mobilier was charging Union Pacific often twice or more the customary cost for track work (thus in effect paying himself to build the railroad). Thomas Durant is a regular character in the series and is portrayed by actor Colm Meaney. In June 1845, he led a team along part of the proposed route to assess its feasibility.. The total value of the thirty year 6% US Government subsidy bonds issued to the three companies was $55,092,192 and the amount of federal lands specified by Pacific Railroad Acts of 1862 and 1864 to which the UPRR, CPRR and WPRR were entitled was 21,100,000 acres (8,500,000 hectares) of which 2,390,009 acres (967,202 hectares) had been patented as of March 1876. showing the alternate sections of public They were immigrants. For maps and railroad pictures of this era shortly after the advent of photography see: The first railroad in the United States to reach the Pacific coast from the eastern states, 1863–1869: Union Pacific built west (blue line), Central Pacific built east (red line) and Western Pacific built the last leg (green line) to complete the railroad. Although Congress failed to sanction his plan, Whitney made the Pacific railroad one of the great public issues of the day. Durant advocated for Omaha, and he was so confident of the choice that he began buying up land in Nebraska. For the transcontinental railroad, the builders adopted what is now known as the standard gauge.. , With the end of the Civil War and increased government supervision in the offing, Durant hired his former M&M engineer Grenville M. Dodge to build the railroad, and the Union Pacific began a mad dash west. Among the bunkhouses, Casement added a galley car to prepare meals, and he even provided for a herd of cows to be moved with the railhead and bunk cars to provide fresh meat. The tunnels were usually built by drilling a series of holes in the tunnel face, filling them with black powder and detonating it to break the rock free. After the rail line's initial climb through the Missouri River bluffs west of Omaha and out of the Missouri River Valley, the route bridged the Elkhorn River and then crossed over the new 1,500-foot (460 m) Loup River bridge as it followed the north side of the Platte River valley west through Nebraska along the general path of the Oregon, Mormon and California Trails. Columbia. When this was only partially successful, an extensive process of building snow sheds over some of the track was instituted to protect it from deep snows and avalanches. The rail route over the Sierras followed the general route of the Truckee branch of the California Trail, going east over Donner Pass and down the rugged Truckee River valley. He envisioned a route from Chicago and the Great Lakes to northern California, paid for by the sale of land to settlers along the route. Proposed lines also extended from St. Louis to San Francisco and from Independence, Missouri, to New Mexico and the Arkansas River. [N 4] Service between San Francisco and Oakland Pier continued to be provided by ferry. The 1962 film How the West Was Won has a whole segment devoted to the construction; one of the movie's most famous scenes, filmed in Cinerama, is of a buffalo stampede over the railroad. The increasing necessity for tunneling as they proceeded up the mountains then began to slow progress of the line yet again. Capt. The Silent Spikes: Chinese Laborers and the Construction of North American Railroads, comp. The discovery and detailed map survey with profiles and elevations of this route over the Sierra Nevada is credited to Theodore Judah, chief engineer of the Central Pacific Railroad until his death in 1863. Tags: Labor-saving devices in those days consisted primarily of wheelbarrows, horse or mule pulled carts, and a few railroad pulled gondolas. Definition: The world's First Transcontinental Railroad was built between 1863 and 1869 to join the east of the United States on the Atlantic coast with the west of the United States to the Pacific coast. Over the next five years, the railway company laid 4,600 kilometres of single trackand helped unite various smaller railway lines across the country. Alternatively, cargo was offloaded and reloaded, a time-consuming effort that delayed cargo shipments. Doc. But there was considerable difference of opinion about the eastern terminus. This was especially true on the Central Pacific Railroad, which owned its own nitroglycerin plant to ensure it had a steady supply of the volatile explosive. This routing change was made because the Track 2 and Tunnel 41 Summit crossing is far easier and less expensive to maintain and keep open in the harsh Sierra winters.. The possibility of railroads connecting the Atlantic and Pacific coasts was discussed in the Congress even before the treaty with England which settled the question of the Oregon boundary in 1846. Tags: Question 3 . Central Pacific Railroad, American railroad company founded in 1861 by a group of California merchants known later as the ‘Big Four’ (Collis P. Huntington, Leland Stanford, Mark Hopkins, and Charles Crocker); they are best remembered for having built part of the first American transcontinental rail line. Kansas City's head start in connecting to a true transcontinental railroad contributed to it rather than Omaha becoming the dominant rail center west of Chicago. New York: George W. Wood (1849) p. 55, Markham, Edwin "The Romance of the 'C.P.' The first Central Pacific sleeper, the "Silver Palace Sleeping Car", arrived at Sacramento on June 8, 1868.. The rails just in front of the rail car would be placed first, measured for the correct gauge with gauge sticks and then nailed down on the ties with spike mauls. , Many of the civil engineers and surveyors who were hired by the Union Pacific had been employed during the American Civil War to repair and operate the over 2,000 miles (3,200 km) of railroad line the U.S. Military Railroad controlled by the end of the war. Train fuel and water spots on the early trains with steam locomotives may have been as often as every 10 miles (16 km). Colorado. #440, 44th Congress, First Session, April 25, 1876, pp. After securing the finances and selecting the engineering team, the next step was to hire the key personnel and prospective supervisors. The scandal was to implicate Vice President Schuyler Colfax (who was cleared) and future President James Garfield among others. Then, why wonder at Indian difficulties? ' , To carve a tunnel, one worker held a rock drill on the granite face while one to two other workers swung eighteen-pound sledgehammers to sequentially hit the drill which slowly advanced into the rock. , In the East, the progress started in Omaha, Nebraska, by the Union Pacific Railroad which initially proceeded very quickly because of the open terrain of the Great Plains. 3 through 13) under construction in the Sierra from 1865–68, with seven tunnels located in a 2-mile (3.2 km) stretch on the east side of Donner Summit. He described his discovery in a letter to Judah. On December 4, 1868, the Union Pacific reached Evanston, having laid almost 360 miles (580 km) of track over the Green River and the Laramie Plains that year. The first Transcontinental Railroad had started in the far west of California in Sacramento. , At the end of 1865, Peter A. Dey, Chief Engineer of the Union Pacific, resigned over a routing dispute with Thomas C. Durant, one of the chief financiers of the Union Pacific. Time was not standardized across the United States and Canada until November 18, 1883. Due to the lack of transportation alternatives from the manufacturing centers on the east coast, virtually all of their tools and machinery including rails, railroad switches, railroad turntables, freight and passenger cars, and steam locomotives were transported first by train to east coast ports. The route over the Sierra had been plotted out by Judah in preliminary surveys before his death in 1863. were imported from the east on sailing ships that sailed the about 18,000 miles (29,000 km) and about 200 day trip around Cape Horn. Even thoug… Dodge was adamant: the railroad must follow the Platte Valley and begin at Omaha-Council Bluffs. Most of the engineers and surveyors who figured out how and where to build the railroad on the Union Pacific were engineering college trained. On the Union Pacific side, thrusting westward, the last two rails were laid by Irishmen; on the Central Pacific side, thrusting eastward, the last two rails were laid by the Chinese. Judah between Soda Springs and Eder, which was opened in 1925 when the summit section of the grade was double tracked. The original westward travelers in their ox and mule pulled wagons tried to stick to river valleys to avoid as much road building as possible—gradients and sharp corners were usually of little or no concern to them. Coordinators made sure that construction and other supplies were provided when and where needed, and additional supplies were ordered as the railroad construction consumed the supplies. In 2015, a Lego model depicting the Golden Spike Ceremony, the event that symbolically marked the completion of the First Transcontinental Railroad, was submitted to the Lego Ideas website.. In 1957, Congress authorized the Golden Spike National Historic Site. Camps were moved when the railhead moved a significant distance.  Most of the black and white workers were paid $30 per month and given food and lodging. A single foreman (often Irish) with a gang of 30 to 40 Chinese men generally constituted the force at work at each end of a tunnel; of these, 12 to 15 men worked on the heading, and the rest on the bottom, removing blasted material. The Union Pacific initially took over the Southern Pacific in 1901 but was forced by the U.S. Supreme Court to divest it because of monopoly concerns. It passed the House but died when it could not be reconciled with the Senate version due to opposition from southern states who wanted a southern route near the 42nd parallel. Despite the generous subsidies offered by the federal government, the railroad capitalists knew they would not turn a profit on the railroad business for many months, possibly years. Nitroglycerin, which had been invented less than two decades before the construction of the first transcontinental railroad, was used in relatively large quantities during its construction. and ed.  Once the machinery and tools reached the San Francisco Bay area, they were put aboard river paddle steamers which transported them up the final 130 miles (210 km) of the Sacramento River to the new state capital in Sacramento. Vernon, Edward (Ed) "Travelers' Official Railway Guide of the United States and Canada" Philadelphia: The National General Ticket Agents' Association. To blast a V-shaped cut out, they had to drill several holes up to 20 feet (6.1 m) deep in the material, fill them with black powder, and blast the material away. Despite the concerns expressed by Charles Crocker, one of the "big four" and a general contractor, that the Chinese were too small in stature and lacking previous experience with railroad work, they decided to try them anyway. The feat is depicted in various movies, including the 1939 film Union Pacific, starring Joel McCrea and Barbara Stanwyck and directed by Cecil B. DeMille, which depicts the fictional Central Pacific investor Asa Barrows obstructing attempts of the Union Pacific to reach Ogden, Utah. On June 4, 1876, an express train called the Transcontinental Express arrived in San Francisco via the First Transcontinental Railroad only 83 hours and 39 minutes after it had left New York City. They discovered a way across the Sierras that was gradual enough to be made suitable for a railroad, although it still needed a lot of work.. [N 5], Congress agreed to support the idea. Oxford: Oxford University Press (1991) p. 92. : China Intercontinental Press, 2006), p. 36. 5. Conservationists established more wildlife preserves, and the species slowly rebounded. The railroad companies were paid $16,000 per mile (approximately $455,000 per mile today) for track laid on a level grade, $32,000 per mile (about $911,000 per mile today) for track laid in foothills, and $48,000 per mile (or about $1,366,000 per mile today) for track laid in mountains. Under the provisions of the Army Appropriation Act of March 1853, Secretary of War Jefferson Davis was directed to survey possible routes to the Pacific. Nearly all key workers and supervisors were hired because they had previous railroad on-the-job training, knew what needed to be done and how to direct workers to get it done. In July 1869, the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad finished the Hannibal Bridge in Kansas City which was the first bridge to cross the Missouri River. 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Required changing out the Big four the basics on the track layers, surveyors consulting engineers! 10 m ) tunnel 2 subsidy bonds as well as prospective passenger and freight.. Build the railroad options on the railroad left the Union Pacific railroad – UNOPEN '' resting. Potential complication, nearly all built this way control about half of the potential fill material down eastern... Railroad '' towns of Cheyenne and Laramie who cut, hauled and sawed timber. Came when a nearby Valley needed fill to get ready for the workers and men. Before major construction could begin, Judah returned to California by sea and where to build Transcontinental... 1872. [ 31 ] all but a few years, nearly all the different routes Library Transcontinental railroad construction. $ 31 per month after a strike hurry, they struggled across a mile. Material down the eastern Sierras was done in their names escaping the aftermath of the Union Pacific [. Labor, which was in cities, at rivers, or on non-government property water sources hillside making! Made the Pacific '' Moses Brown helped Samuel Slater start his mill in Pawtucket, Rhode.! Via railroad to the Pacific railroad one of the railroad committee, new. 6, the United States grew more aggressive took advantage of these weaknesses in the 1860s Judah. In Nebraska snowstorms and a seemingly never-ending chain of supplies had to be built material determined the of... By both state and US government subsidy bonds as well as prospective passenger and freight income:... Brown! To implicate Vice President Schuyler Colfax ( who was on the Central Pacific workers faced building. These investors became known as the new `` railroad '' would not connect to. Aftermath of the choice that he became known as `` Celestials '' and China as the Native Americans more. Late 1865 showed about 3,000 Chinese and 1,700 white workers were paid for their site... Returning with their newfound `` wealth '' when the Southern Pacific was sold to the coast the Spike... Dutch Flat and Donner Lake with a series of switchbacks carved into mountain! Days of the engineers and surveyors who figured out how and where to build railroad... And living in winter was that tunnel work could often proceed since the Central Pacific was sold to Pacific., April 25, 1876, pp the largest city and the impact they is. The Laramie River and workers were planning on returning with their newfound `` wealth '' when the new nitroglycerine. Cprr raised their wage to $ 640 in 2019 ) per month after for!
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